Everything you need to know about allergies

Everything you need to know about allergies

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Allergies are a very common overreaction of the immune system to usually harmless substances.When a person with an allergy comes into contact with an allergen, the allergic reaction is not immediate. The immune system gradually builds up sensitivity to the substance before overreacting.

The immune system needs time to recognize and remember the allergen. As it becomes sensitive to the substance, the immune system starts making antibodies to attack it. This process is called sensitization.

Sensitization can take a few days or several years. In many cases, the sensitization process is not completed. The patient experiences some symptoms but not a full allergy.

Allergies may also be seasonal. For example, hay fever symptoms can peak between April and May, as the pollen count in the air is much higher.

Allergies are the result of an inappropriate immune response to a normally harmless substance. Some of the most common allergens are dust, pollen, and nuts. They can cause sneezing, peeling skin, and vomiting.

Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that can be life-threatening. Anaphylaxis is a quickly escalating, serious allergic reaction that sets in rapidly. If the exposure is intravenous, onset is usually between 5 to 30 minutes.

To diagnose an allergy, a clinician may take a blood sample.

The symptoms of an allergy can be treated with drugs. However, the allergy itself requires desensitization.

Anaphylaxis requires emergency treatment. Epinephrine injectors can help reduce the severity of an anaphylactic reaction.

The signs and symptoms depend on the type of allergen. Allergic reactions may occur in the gut, skin, sinuses, airways, eyes, and nasal passages.

Dust and pollen, blocked nose, itchy eyes and nose, runny nose, swollen and watery eyes, cough, Food, vomiting, swollen tongue, tingling in the mouth, swelling of the lips, face, throat, stomach cramps, shortness of breath, rectal bleeding, mainly in children itchiness in the mouth, diarrhea, Insect stings, wheezing, swelling at the site of the sting, a sudden drop in blood pressure, itchy skin, shortness of breath, restlessness hives, a red and very itchy rash that spreads across the body, dizziness, chest tightness, anxiety, possible anaphylaxis

Risk factors

The following can be risk factors for developing allergies:

  • a family history of asthma or allergies
  • being a child
  • having asthma
  • not being exposed to enough sunlight
  • having a different allergy
  • birth by Caesarean section


The most effective treatment and management of an allergy is avoidance of the allergen.

However, sometimes it is not possible to completely avoid an allergen. Pollen, for example, is constantly floating in the air, especially during hay fever season.


Drugs can help treat the symptoms of an allergic reaction, but they will not cure the allergy.


Immunotherapy is also known as hyposensitization. This type of therapy rehabilitates the immune system. Immunotherapy is only used to treat severe allergies.

Acupuncture has also been claimed to influence the various activities of cells in the body, particularly via the transport, breakdown and clearance of “bioactive mediators.” These actions, along with the claimed effect of inhibiting an over-active immune system, are thought to result in anti-inflammatory effects on the body. These anti-inflammatory effects are thought to decrease inflammatory diseases such as allergic rhinitis.




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